An Intelligent Tool to Evaluate Air Campaign Plans

INSPECT is a plan evaluation tool that was built using the EXPECT framework to develop knowledge-based systems. INSPECT was initially developed as part of the work that the EXPECT project is doing under the the DARPA/Rome Laboratory Planning Initiative (ARPI) to create tools that support the US military in developing air campaigns. INSPECT is now being extended in several important dimensions under the DARPA JFACC program.

INSPECT takes an air campaign plan that has been manually developed and looks for possible problems that a user may have overlooked, such as inconsistencies or unrealistic use of resources. An important part of the work on INSPECT was the development of structured representations (or grammars) for air campaign plans.

INSPECT was an integral part of two important demonstrations: ARPI's Fourth Integrated Feasibility Demonstration (IFD-4) in June 1996 and the Jumpstart Demonstration of the DARPA JFACC program in January 1997.

Ongoing Work on INSPECT

INSPECT is being extended in several important dimensions under the DARPA JFACC program. Some of these extensions require basic R&D work on the EXPECT framework on generating explanations and justifications for INSPECT's recommendations, and on Web-based tools to support domain experts to change INSPECT's knowledge base. Other extensions will widen the scope of INSPECT's evaluations to (i) include additional types of objectives (such as force support (logistics) and force enhancement (ISR - intelligence, Surveillance and reconaissance) and (ii) to evaluate the plan from a more global perspective that would include information about strategy and plan rationale.


Valente, A., Gil, Y. and Swartout, W. R. INSPECT: an Intelligent System for Air Campaign Plan Evaluation based on EXPECT .

Valente, A., Swartout, W. R. and Gil, Y. A Representation and Library for Objectives in Air Campaign Plans .

Valente, A. A Representation for Measures of Effect in Air Campaign Plans .

For more information about INSPECT, send mail to

Last updated: June, 1997.