Papers on EXPECT

Papers on Planning

Papers on Knowledge Acquisition

Papers on Ontologies and Problem-Solving Methods

Papers on Proactive Dialogue

Papers on Machine Learning

Papers on Ontologies and Problem-Solving Methods

Jim Blythe, Jihie Kim, Surya Ramachandran and Yolanda Gil. "An Integrated Environment for Knowledge Acquisition". Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2001 ( PDF file)

Abstract: This paper describes an integrated acquisition interface that includes several techniques previously developed to support users in various ways as they add new knowledge to an intelligent system. As a result of this integration, the individual techniques can take better advantage of the context in which they are invoked and provide stronger guidance to users. We describe the current implementation using examples from a travel planning domain, and demonstrate how users can add complex knowledge to the system.

Yolanda Gil and Jim Blythe. "PLANET: A Shareable and Reusable Ontology for Representing Plans". In AAAI 2000 workshop on Representational Issues for Real-world Planning Systems ( PDF file)

Abstract: Ontologies are becoming a recognized vehicle for knowledge reuse, knowledge sharing, and modeling. This paper presents PLANET, an ontology for representing plans. To show that PLANET is a comprehensive ontology that can be reused to build new applications, we describe several specializations of it to represent plans in three different real-world domains that were made by adding minor extensions to PLANET's general definitions and classes. In past work, we have developed several plan evaluation systems in these domains, and have integrated them in several occasions with plan editors and plan generation systems. For each of these integrations, and often for each system in the integration, a new format for exchanging plans was devised. PLANET can represent all of the plans that we and others have used in these domains, providing a standard universal format for knowledge sharing that can be used as an interlingua in integrated planning applications. Finally, the paper discusses how we have used PLANET as a knowledge modelling tool to design representations for courses of action in a military domain, guiding us to make useful distinctions and modelling choices.

Jim Blythe and Yolanda Gil. "A Problem-Solving Method for Plan Evaluation and Critiquing". Proceedings of the Twelfth Banff Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop (KAW-99). (PDF file)

Abstract: As intelligent systems become larger and work in increasingly more complex and knowledge intensive environments, it becomes impractical to develop knowledge bases from scratch. A practical alternative is to develop knowledge bases out of reusable components, either ontologies or domain-independent problem solving methods. This paper describes a reusable knowledge base of general principles about plan evaluation and critiquing. It includes ontologies to represent plans and critiques, an ontology of evaluation criteria, and problem-solving knowledge about how to evaluate plans with respect to those criteria. Currently, the evaluation criteria analyze various aspects of the plan structure and its use of resources. We performed a study of three evaluation and critiquing task domains, and found that our framework covers approximately 75 percent of the critiquing criteria related to plan structure and resource use (and over 90 percent within the framework's declared scope). Our framework also enables a systematic approach to the development of plan evaluation tools by following the organization of the criteria in the method.
Jim Blythe and Yolanda Gil. "Developing Plan Evaluation and Critiquing Tools Based on Reuse and Capture of General Principles". Available from

Yolanda Gil and Jim Blythe. "PLANET: A Shareable and Reusable Ontology for Representing Plans". Available from

Andre Valente, Tom Russ, Robert MacGregor, and William Swartout. "Building, Using and Reusing an Ontology of Air Campaign Planning". IEEE Intelligent Systems, special issue on Ontologies, 14(1), January 1999.


Bill Swartout, Ramesh Patil, Kevin Knight and Tom Russ. "Toward Distributed Use of Large-Scale Ontologies". Proceedings of the Tenth Knowledge Acquisition for Knowledge-Based Systems Workshop, November 9-14, 1996. Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract: If we could share knowledge across systems, costs would be reduced. However, because knowledge bases are typically constructed from scratch, each with their own idiosyncratic structure, sharing is difficult. Recent research has focused on the use of ontologies to promote sharing. An ontology is a hierarchically structured set of terms for describing a domain that can be used as a skeletal foundation for a knowledge base. If two knowledge bases are built on a common ontology, knowledge can be more readily shared, since they share a common underlying structure. This paper outlines a set of desiderata for ontologies, and then describes how we have used a large-scale (50,000+ concept) ontology to develop a specialized, domain-specific ontology semi-automatically. We then discuss the relation between ontologies and the process of developing a system, arguing that to be useful, an ontology needs to be created as a "living document", whose development is tightly integrated with the system's. We conclude with a discussion of Web-based ontology tools we are developing to support this approach.

Related Papers

Andre Valente, J. Breuker, and W. van de Velde. "The CommonKADS Library in Perspective". International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 1998.

J. Breuker and Andre Valente. "Guidelines for Principled Core Ontologies". Poster Session Abstracts of IJCAI-97.

Jihie Kim, Ringo Ling and Peter Will. "Ontology Engineering for Active Catalog". AAAI workshop on Using AI in Electronic Commerce, Virtual Organizations and Enterprise Knowledge Manageent to Reengineer the Corporation, 1997. (PDF file)

Ringo Ling, Jihie Kim and Peter Will. "Active Catalog: Searching and Using Catalog Information in Internet-based Design". Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 17th Computers in Engineering Conference, 1997. (PDF file)

Murilo Coutinho, Ragy Eleish, Jihie Kim, Vished Kumar, Ringo Ling, Robert Neches, and Peter Will. "Active Catalogs: Integrated Support for Component Engineering". Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 18th Computers in Engineering Conference, 1998. (Postscript file )

J. Breuker, Andre Valente, and R. Winkels. "Legal Ontologies: A Functional View". In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Legal Ontologies.

J. Breuker and Andre Valente. "Legal Modeling and Automated Reasoning with ON-LINE". Submitted to International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, special issue on Model-Based reasoning.

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