VII. A new protocol for ns

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In this section I will give you an example for a new protocol that could be implemented in ns. You should probably become fairly familiar with ns before you try this yourself, and some C++ knowledge is definitely necessary. You should also read at least the chapters 3.1-3.3 from "ns Notes and Documentation" (now renamed ns Manual) to understand the interaction between Tcl and C++.

The code in this section implements some sort of simple 'ping' protocol (inspired by the 'ping requestor' in chapter 9.6 of the "ns Notes and Documentation" (now renamed ns Manual), but fairly different). One node will be able to send a packet to another node which will return it immediately, so that the round-trip-time can be calculated.

I understand that the code presented here might not be the best possible implementation, and I am sure it can be improved, though I hope it is easy to understand, which is the main priority here. However, suggestions can be sent here.

VII.1. The header file
In the new header file 'ping.h' we first have to declare the data structure for the new Ping packet header which is going to carry the relevant data.

struct hdr_ping {
  char ret;
  double send_time;
The char 'ret' is going to be set to '0' if the packet is on its way from the sender to the node which is being pinged, while it is going to be set to '1' on its way back. The double 'send_time' is a time stamp that is set on the packet when it is sent, and which is later used to calculate the round-trip-time.

The following piece of code declares the class 'PingAgent' as a subclass of the class 'Agent'.
class PingAgent : public Agent {
  int command(int argc, const char*const* argv);
  void recv(Packet*, Handler*);
  int off_ping_;  
In the following section, I am going to present the C++ code which defines the constructor 'PingAgent()' and the functions 'command()' and 'recv()' which were redefined in this declaration. The int 'off_ping_' will be used to access a packet's ping header. Note that for variables with a local object scope usually a trailing '_' is used.

You can download the full header file here (I suggest you do that and take a quick look at it, since the code that was presented here isn't totally complete).

VII.2. The C++ code
First the linkage between the C++ code and Tcl code has to be defined. It is not necessary that you fully understand this code, but it would help you to read the chapters 3.1-3.3 in the
"ns Manual" if you haven't done that yet to understand it.

static class PingHeaderClass : public PacketHeaderClass {
  PingHeaderClass() : PacketHeaderClass("PacketHeader/Ping", 
                                        sizeof(hdr_ping)) {}
} class_pinghdr;

static class PingClass : public TclClass {
  PingClass() : TclClass("Agent/Ping") {}
  TclObject* create(int, const char*const*) {
    return (new PingAgent());
} class_ping;

The next piece of code is the constructor for the class 'PingAgent'. It binds the variables which have to be accessed both in Tcl and C++.

PingAgent::PingAgent() : Agent(PT_PING)
  bind("packetSize_", &size_);
  bind("off_ping_", &off_ping_);

The function 'command()' is called when a Tcl command for the class 'PingAgent' is executed. In our case that would be '$pa send' (assuming 'pa' is an instance of the Agent/Ping class), because we want to send ping packets from the Agent to another ping agent. You basically have to parse the command in the 'command()' function, and if no match is found, you have to pass the command with its arguments to the 'command()' function of the base class (in this case 'Agent::command()'). The code might look very long because it's commented heavily.

int PingAgent::command(int argc, const char*const* argv)
  if (argc == 2) {
    if (strcmp(argv[1], "send") == 0) {
      // Create a new packet
      Packet* pkt = allocpkt();
      // Access the Ping header for the new packet:
      hdr_ping* hdr = (hdr_ping*)pkt->access(off_ping_);
      // Set the 'ret' field to 0, so the receiving node knows
      // that it has to generate an echo packet
      hdr->ret = 0;
      // Store the current time in the 'send_time' field
      hdr->send_time = Scheduler::instance().clock();
      // Send the packet
      send(pkt, 0);
      // return TCL_OK, so the calling function knows that the
      // command has been processed
      return (TCL_OK);
  // If the command hasn't been processed by PingAgent()::command,
  // call the command() function for the base class
  return (Agent::command(argc, argv));

The function 'recv()' defines the actions to be taken when a packet is received. If the 'ret' field is 0, a packet with the same value for the 'send_time' field, but with the 'ret' field set to 1 has to be returned. If 'ret' is 1, a Tcl function (which has to be defined by the user in Tcl) is called and processed the event (Important note to users of the ns version 2.1b2: 'Address::instance().NodeShift_[1]' has to be replaced with 'NODESHIFT' to get the example to work under ns 2.1b2).

void PingAgent::recv(Packet* pkt, Handler*)
  // Access the IP header for the received packet:
  hdr_ip* hdrip = (hdr_ip*)pkt->access(off_ip_);
  // Access the Ping header for the received packet:
  hdr_ping* hdr = (hdr_ping*)pkt->access(off_ping_);
  // Is the 'ret' field = 0 (i.e. the receiving node is being pinged)?
  if (hdr->ret == 0) {
    // Send an 'echo'. First save the old packet's send_time
    double stime = hdr->send_time;
    // Discard the packet
    // Create a new packet
    Packet* pktret = allocpkt();    
    // Access the Ping header for the new packet:
    hdr_ping* hdrret = (hdr_ping*)pktret->access(off_ping_);
    // Set the 'ret' field to 1, so the receiver won't send another echo
    hdrret->ret = 1;                
    // Set the send_time field to the correct value
    hdrret->send_time = stime;      
    // Send the packet              
    send(pktret, 0);                
  } else {                          
    // A packet was received. Use tcl.eval to call the Tcl
    // interpreter with the ping results.
    // Note: In the Tcl code, a procedure 'Agent/Ping recv {from rtt}'
    // has to be defined which allows the user to react to the ping
    // result.                      
    char out[100];                  
    // Prepare the output to the Tcl interpreter. Calculate the round
    // trip time                    
    sprintf(out, "%s recv %d %3.1f", name(), 
            hdrip->src_.addr_ >> Address::instance().NodeShift_[1],
            (Scheduler::instance().clock()-hdr->send_time) * 1000);
    Tcl& tcl = Tcl::instance();     
    // Discard the packet           
You can download the full file here. The most interesting part should be the 'tcl.eval()' function where a Tcl function 'recv' is called, with the id of the pinged node and the round-trip-time (in miliseconds) as parameters. It will be shown in Section VII.4 how the code for this function has to be written. But first of all, some other files have to be edited before ns can be recompiled.

VII.3. Necessary changes

You will have to change some things in some of the ns source files if you want to add a new agent, especially if it uses a new packet format. I suggest you always mark your changes with comments, use #ifdef, etc., so you can easily remove your changes or port them to new ns releases.

We're going to need a new packet type for the ping agent, so the first step is to edit the file 'packet.h'. There you can find the definitions for the packet protocol IDs (i.e. PT_TCP, PT_TELNET, etc.). Add a new definition for PT_PING there. In my edited version of packet.h, the last few lines of enum packet_t {} looks like the following code (it might look a bit different in earlier/later releases).
enum packet_t {
	// insert new packet types here
        PT_PING,    //  packet protocol ID for our ping-agent
	PT_NTYPE // This MUST be the LAST one

You also have to edit the p_info() in the same file to include "Ping".

class p_info {
	p_info() {
		name_[PT_TCP]= "tcp";
		name_[PT_UDP]= "udp";
 		name_[PT_TFRC]= "tcpFriend";
		name_[PT_TFRC_ACK]= "tcpFriendCtl";


		name_[PT_NTYPE]= "undefined";

Remember that you have to do a 'make depend' before you do the 'make', otherwise these two files might not be recompiled.

The file 'tcl/lib/ns-default.tcl' has to be edited too. This is the file where all default values for the Tcl objects are defined. Insert the following line to set the default packet size for Agent/Ping.

Agent/Ping set packetSize_ 64

You also have to add an entry for the new ping packets in the file 'tcl/lib/ns-packet.tcl' in the list at the beginning of the file. It would look like the following piece of code.

        { SRMEXT off_srm_ext_}
        { Ping off_ping_ }} {
set cl PacketHeader/[lindex $pair 0]

The last change is a change that has to be applied to the 'Makefile'. You have to add the file 'ping.o' to the list of object files for ns. In my version the last lines of the edited list look like this:

sessionhelper.o delaymodel.o srm-ssm.o \
srm-topo.o \
ping.o \
$(LIB_DIR)int.Vec.o $(LIB_DIR)int.RVec.o \
$(LIB_DIR)dmalloc_support.o \

You should be able to recompile ns now simply by typing 'make' in the ns directory. If you are having any problems, please email ns-users.

VII.4. The Tcl code
I'm not going to present the full code for a Tcl example for the Ping agent now. You can download a full example
here. But I will show you how to write the 'recv' procedure that is called from the 'recv()' function in the C++ code when a ping 'echo' packet is received.

Agent/Ping instproc recv {from rtt} {
        $self instvar node_
        puts "node [$node_ id] received ping answer from \
              $from with round-trip-time $rtt ms."
This code should be fairly easy to understand. The only new thing is that it accesses the member variable 'node_' of the base class 'Agent' to get the node id for the node the agent is attached to.

Now you can try some experiments of your own. A very simple experiment would be to not set the 'ret' field in the packets to 1. You can probably guess what is going to happen. You can also try to add some code that allows the user to send ping packets with '$pa send $node' (where 'pa' is a ping agent and 'node' a node) without having to connect the agent 'pa' with the ping agent on 'node' first, though that might be a little bit more complicated than it sounds at first. You can also read the chapter 9.6 from the "ns Manual" to learn more about creating your own agents. Good luck.

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Marc Greis