often activates or deactivates enzymes and other proteins
Example: If amino acid Serine-473 ("S473") in the protein AKT is phosphorylated, AKT is, in general, functionally active as a kinase. If not, it is an inactive kinase.
Reverse process: dephosphorylation
hyperphosphorylation: protein with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated
Common source of phosphate added in phosphorylation: ATP (= adenosine triphosphate
) which donates one of its phosphates and becomes ADP (= adenosine diphosphate
Typical agent: enzyme
frame for phosphorylate-01
:ARG0 agent of phosphorylation (e.g. person, process)
:ARG1 thing phosphorylated; typically a protein or other organic molecule
:ARG2 instrument (typically an enzyme)
:ARG3 product of phosphorylation; typically a protein or other organic molecule
large organic molecule
major building block of living things
can be agents of biochemical processes (enzymes)
Proteins are encoded by genes. The physical expression of genes into proteins consists of two steps: (1) enzymes transcribe
genes into messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and then (2) ribosomes translate
these messenger RNAs into proteins.
- components of a protein
A protein is a chain of many amino acid residues (An amino acid residue
is an amino acid minus a -OH and a -H group, which are discarded as water when two amino acids are bound together as links in a protein chain in a process called polymerization).
A term such as "S151" refers to a specific amino acid ("S" = serine; table
) at a specific position ("151") in the chain of amino acid residues that make up a protein. A prefix "p" (as in "pS151") indicates that the amino acid is phosphorylated
A protein-segment is a sub-chain of one or more amino acids.
Some protein-segments are referred to as a domain
or (binding) site
- types of proteins