:concession   (AMR annotation guidance)

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In (m / main-event :concession (c / concession-event)), the concession-event creates an expectation which is at least partially invalidated by the main-event. The expectation can be implied or subjective.

In English, a concession-event is typically signalled by the subordinating conjunctions although, even though, though, and albeit, or the prepositions despite, despite of and in spite of.

It can also be signalled on the main-event side by adverbs such as however and nevertheless, or even by the conjunction but, particularly when but is used in conjunction with anyway.

Example:  The game continued although it rained .
     (c / continue-01
           :ARG1 (g / game)
           :concession (r / rain-01))

Example:  The game continued despite of the rain .
     (c / continue-01
           :ARG1 (g / game)
           :concession (r / rain-01))

Example:  It started to rain, but the game continued anyway .
     (s / start-01
           :ARG1 (r / rain-01)
           :concession-of (c / continue-01
                 :ARG1 (g / game)))

Example:  Workers described `` clouds of blue dust '' that hung over parts of the factory , even though exhaust fans ventilated the area .
     (d / describe-01
           :ARG0 (p / person
                 :ARG0-of (w / work-01))
           :ARG1 (c3 / cloud
                 :consist-of (d3 / dust
                       :mod (b2 / blue))
                 :ARG1-of (h / hang-01
                       :location (o / over
                             :op1 (t / thing
                                   :part-of (f / factory)))
                       :concession (v / ventilate-01
                             :ARG0 (f2 / fan
                                   :mod (e / exhaust))
                             :ARG1 (a / area)))))

Reification: have-concession-91

The reification of :concession is have-concession-91.

If a word such as nevertheless signals that there is a concession, but that concession is outside the sentence, use the reification have-concession-91:

Example:  Nevertheless, the game continued .
     (c / continue-01
           :ARG1 (g / game)
           :ARG1-of (h / have-concession-91))

Choosing between :concession and contrast-01

Unlike contrast-01, which symmetrically contrasts two things (John is rich, but Mary is poor. = Mary is poor, but John is rich.), :concession is directional, i.e. the concession-event creates an expectation and the main-event invalidates it. The concession-event and the main-event cannot be switched without changing the meaning.

If you are not sure whether to use :concession or contrast-01, see whether you can rephrase the sentence using although, which signals :concession; otherwise use contrast-01. See also page on contrast-01.

Special cases: even ifeven aseven when

As constructions with the conjunctions even if, even as and even when have meanings that add a hypothetical or temporal aspect, those conjunctions are included in the AMR, much as after etc. are included in temporal AMRs.

Example:  The game will continue even if it rains .
     (c / continue-01
           :ARG1 (g / game)
           :concession (e / even-if
                 :op1 (r / rain-01)))

Example:  They feared him even when he was behind bars .
     (f / fear-01
           :ARG0 (t / they)
           :ARG1 (h / he)
           :concession (e / even-when
                 :op1 (i / imprison-01
                       :ARG1 h)))

Example:  Supply will rise further even as demand tapers off .
     (r / rise-01
           :ARG1 (s / supply-01)
           :degree (f / further)
           :concession (e / even-as
                 :op1 (t / taper-off-01
                       :ARG1 (d / demand-01))))

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